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Full text of "Man, a material, mental and spiritual being; a lecture delivered in the City Hall, Kingston, C.W"

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January Qth, 1860, 


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January 6th, 1860, 
— by — 






Kingston, Jan. 16, 1860. 

DEAR SIR — Having heard your Lecture on " Man," 
and believing that it should have a wide circulation, 
not only on account of the subject itself, but the able man- 
ner of its treatment, we take the liberty of requesting its 
publication, and promise to take copies to the number 
against our names. 

We are, dear sir, 
Yours, &c, 

Geo. Okill Stuart, D.D. 
A. Stewart, A.M. 
R. V. Rogers, A.M. 
John Mair, M. D. 
A. J. O'Loughlin, Esq. 

GENTLEMEN— I feel highly complimented by the 
request contained in your note, and shall take imme- 
diate steps to publish the Lecture, of which you have been 
pleased to express so favorable an opinion. 
Your obedient servant, 

A. J. O'Loughlin. 
To the Ven. Archdeacon of Kingston, 
Rev. A. Stewart, 
Rev. R. V. Rogers, 
Doctor John Mair. 

M J± 1ST , 


In the annals of the early infancy of our race, 
when marking out the starting point of some re- 
markable or commemorative era, history to a battle 
or seige, as the land-mark, more frequently alludes, 
than to the discovery of some great or scientific 
truth, not that her choice gave a preference to the 
one, but because of the rare and unfrequent appear- 
ance of the other. What a contrast is this to the 
age in which we live ? During the last fifty years 
such wondrous facts have been elicited from the 
fields of nature and science, that with respect to 
their influence on our physical and social condition, 
it may in some sense be said that a new era has 
dawned on our existence ; and of these facts such 
a number that we are astonished by their quantity 


no less than by their quality ! Facts of such a 
character that in an ordinary age of the world's 
existence, each or any one of them would com- 
mand for itself a considerable portion of attention, 
but such is the rapidity with which, in the present 
day, the results of investigation are presented to 
our view, that just as we have noted the birth-mo* 
ment of one, and ere we have fully enquired into 
the nature of its relation to ourselves, another suc- 
ceeding, presents itself to our attention, claiming 
for itself enrolment in those annals wherein are 
recorded the triumphs of the human intellect, the 
achievements of the human mind. Nor is it the 
least peculiar feature in the character of the present 
age, that knowledge seems desirous of hiding her- 
self no longer from the masses. Time was when 
shrouded beneath the mystic figures of the as- 
trologer, burning in the fires of the alchemist 
or slumbering in the recesses of the cloistered 
cell, ere she started into life from beneath the 
dust of the sleeping schools, she loved occasion- 
ally, — and only occasionally — to exhibit herself 
to the wondering gaze of a favored few. But 
such conduct is hers no longer, as if to atone for 
the slowness with which in former ages she dis- 
pensed her gifts, or the scantiness with which she 
shed her light through the dimness of the dark and 
shadowy past, she now has taken her stand on the 
high places of the earth, and from her lamp, dis- 
pensing such brightness that the humblest of the 
sons of the earth, as well as those favored by for- 
tune's star, passing the barriers of ignorance, are 
pressing into her temple and worshiping at her 
shrine; possessing themselves of those treasures 


which were to remain concealed until the arrival 
of that period described as a time when many 
" would run to and fro, and knowledge should be 
increased ;" and with the increase of her gifts, in- 
creasing also the number of approaches to her 
broad domain, aiding many of those who have 
cried after her to mark out new paths by which 
her riches might be obtained, or she herself re- 
vealed. Men not only watch for her now in the 
twinkling of those distant stars which seem fixed 
in the immensity of space, but digging for her 
through the incrustations of our earth, are call- 
ing on the silent watches of ten thousand years to 
speak, and of them are eagerly demanding " what 
of the night? What of the night?" and judging 
by the response which has been given, it appears 
that even here she has not been insensible to our 
enquiries ; and while in these new fields, varied 
and numerous exertions are being put forth, in 
forms as varied and as numerous does she seem to 
delight in revealing herself to our utmost antici- 
pations. We see her in the flight of the steam- 
ship. We hear her in the rush of the rail-car. 
Across the broad waters of the angry Ocean she 
sends us on electric wing the whisperings of a 
distant friend, or should affection or memory de- 
mand it, the shadows of his countenance transfixed 
by the intangible atoms of light. There is no path- 
way where the footsteps of knowledge are not seen, 
no highway where her impress is not traced : the 
fire, the. air, the earth and the waters, each atom 
they contain, is an avenue to her temple, and 
though all in their different forms possess attrac- 
tions varied and suited to the different classes of 


human mind ; yet if there is any one of these 
pathways that possesses a peculiar attraction, and 
promises to lead us to treasures more rich than 
any yet discovered, that pathway is man. Man! 
what a world is in that word. The created and 
redeemed of Heaven, the wonder of Angels, the 
mystery of himself. Though unable to lift the 
veil which seems to enshroud him, yet let us 
gather up the glimmerings that are shed through 
the portals of his earthly existence, and patiently 
await the time when the secrets of that existence 
shall be revealed by Him who created the glorious 
structure, — an existence so exalted in its origin, 
and so honored in its position, that when the cor- 
ner stone of his material habitation was laid by tho 
hand of the great Architect of the Universe, " the 
morning stars sang together, and all the sons of 
God shouted aloud for joy." 

That ours is a wondrous existence, is a fact 
which few individuals, existing under any circum- 
stances, will for a single moment be inclined to 
disallow. Whether we direct our enquiries on 
this subject to the unlettered savage of the desert, 
or seek our information from him whose life has 
been a scene of constant investigation, each with 
every intermediate stage of intellectual capacity 
between them, agree in regarding Man as one of 
the most singular and most mysterious beings of 
which he himself has any knowledge or concep- 
tion : neither is there anything improbable in the 
supposition, that even we are permitted to hold 
an unlimited intercourse with the intelligences of 
the hidden world — we should find that those be- 
ings regard him also, as the possessor of a peculiar 


nature most difficult to define, — difficult even to 
ourselves, for it is also to ourselves mysterious and 
peculiar ; because that in that world of creation 
with which he stands immediately connected, we 
know no other created being that to the enquiring 
mind presents either the same or like characteris- 
tics. Neither does a partial investigation of those 
qualities, on enquiry into the nature of those hab- 
its which seem to distinguish him from other an- 
imals, appear to lessen those difficulties which 
present themselves to our view when we endeav- 
our, in condensed terms, to express those ideas, 
which, while they describe his identity, should lo- 
cate him also in his proper place, and assign him 
his due limits. And while of almost every other 
atom by which he is immediately surrounded, he 
can either describe its qualities, or analyse its es- 
sence ; and in this very act exhibiting an almost 
infinite degree of intellectual power ; yet even in 
the present enlightened stage of his existence, he 
seems to lack either the courage or ability, his own 
decided definition to determine. Nor is it the least 
peculiar feature in his character, that while he ex- 
hibits a constantly increasing capability of unlock- 
ing the secrets of nature and tracing the different 
modes of her being, as she exhibits herself in the 
Animal, Mineral, or Vegetable worlds, yet, strange 
anamoly, himself appears- to be the only point 
where his investigation seems to fail, — or if not 
fail, at least to decide with less certainty here than 
in other instances, his true position, his character 
and his end ; and perhaps a due consideration of 
this fact may lead us to regard with some degree 
of that attention it should command, the myste- 


ncms inscription on the Athenian altar "know 
thyself." And if ; while endeavoring to comply 
with the injunction, we are ready to exclaim with 
Thales, the founder of the Ionic School, that " the 
most difficult thing is to know one's self," — yet 
are we encouraged in the enquiry by the declar- 
ation of one of our own poets, " that the greatest 
study of mankind is man." To which one would 
humbly add, not merely as a subject of specula- 
tion or vain theory, but as a living monument 
wherein is exhibited an extraordinary instance of 
the wisdom, power and goodness of God. 

What is Man ! This is a question that has 
occupied the attention of the wise and learned in 
all periods of his history. Philosophers in the re- 
motest ages of antiquity, made him their chief 
study, building their several S3 r stems of knowledge 
or learning according to the theories they pro- 
pounded of his origin or existence. Several of 
the greatest minds regarded him as a paradox, or 
riddle, arising from the several contrarieties which 
seem to makeup his identity. He is a grand con- 
tradiction, active, yet passive: possessed of a 
reason to guide him, yet frequently exhibiting his 
will in action, contrary to the dictates of that rea- 
son. Dwelling in a body which holds him as an 
atom by which he is linked to a material world, 
and yet possessed of an intelligence which whis- 
peringly tells him that he is also connected with 
a world spiritual and unseen, weak and perish- 
able, as the gossamer on the summer breeze, and 
yet erecting monuments of his power which seem 
to defy the ravages of time. Having an under- 
standing capable of defining the position, distance 


and quantity of those eccentric stars which wan- 
der amid the infinities of space, and yet of himself 
often in such circumstances on earth, that his wis* 
dom is incapable of guiding him to the right hand 
or to the left. The Heathen Philosophers of the 
ancient world, attempted to define him. The 
greatest minds of the present age, are employing 
their powers in investigating and describing him ; 
and while some of the latter define him as an an- 
imal that cooks his food, and others again as one 
that makes bargains, we shall not stop to enquire 
whether the writers who designated him as such, 
were in jest or earnest, but remark that of those 
several definitions which from time to time have 
been given to the world as descriptive of his per- 
son and character, perhaps there is none that 
would at first sight appear to be more fitting and 
appropriate than the terms which define him as a 
spiritual, served by organs ; and though this defi- 
nition be plausible, }'et when we come to analyse 
its terms, and apply them to the realities of our 
being, we find it fails to point out expressively 
or inductively, the whole of the components of our 
identity, and therefore must object to it as being 
imperfect. The reasonableness of the objection 
we trust to make appear in our remarks when 
speaking of him as a being possessing mental ca- 
pabilities, and would simply remark in passing, 
that this definition "a spiritual, served by organs," 
if it were allowed or adopted — from it might be 
deduced the proposition that the intellectual intel- 
ligence of a spirit could be disarranged by the ex- 
ternal accidents of matter, a conclusion contrary to 
reason, and therefore, by reason cannot be allowed. 


Or again, if in man's person there be not positively 
contained a spirit dwelling in his person and con- 
stituting a portion of his identity, and that he is 
defined merely spiritual because or on account of 
his intelligence, then it would follow that the mere 
animal, — in some respects approaching man's in- 
telligence, might bj regarded as spiritual also, and 
from which the inference might be drawn that man 
is but a mere animal. Therefore, turning from 
this definition, which lies open to these objections, 
let us endeavor to find terms more truly than 
these descriptive of his identity and being. 

In common with the atoms of the material uni- 
verse by which he is surrounded, there is a por- 
tion of man which is passive to the action of the 
compound elements. The fire may burn, or the 
atmosphere may freeze him, beneath the surface of 
the earth he moulders into dust, or may waste 
from the action of the waters. The portion of 
man thus passive is his body, the animated ma- 
chine through which he acts on the external world, 
or by which he becomes passive to external things, 
from action performed through the body occasion- 
ally devoid of purpose, or irrational, we infer not 
only the existence of an intelligence manifested 
through it, but also are led to regard that intelli- 
gence as mutable and subject to disarrangement. 
This or a similar intelligence in the lower animals, 
is designated the mind. We have no objection to 
the term, we adopt it for man. Man has a body 
and mind. This mind appears to be dependent, 
to a certain extent, for its due order and arrange- 
ment on the organization and condition of the 
body, — though, as will appear by-and-by, mind is 


not necessarily a result or consequence of material 
or mechanical arrangement. That the mind is 
thus dependent on the body we infer from obser- 
vation and experience ; for if certain portions of 
the body be less or more injured, the mind be- 
comes less or more deranged. Hence the proof 
of its intimate connection with, and dependance 
on the body. But it appears that the body and 
mind are not the whole man, which may be infer- 
red from the following considerations. Let a cer- 
tain portion of the body be injured, — the injury 
causing a derangement of the mind. Then, while 
the body is thus injured, and the mind thus disar- 
ranged, there is during such disarrangement, occa- 
sionally or frequently exhibited through the body 
action purely intellectual ; action which could be 
performed only under the immediate direction of 
a rational and intellectual spirit. Hence, then, 
even with the mind disarranged, such a spirit 
dwells in the body with its intellectual faculties in 
harmony with themselves. This spirit is called 
the human soul. Man has a body, a mind and a 
soul. Therefore, as a compound of three compo- 
nents, may he not be defined as a being of a tri- 
une nature, exhibiting in his identity a union of 
matter, mind and soul ? Matter as exhibited in 
his corporeal frame, tangible to external things, and 
passive to the action of the elements, mind pos- 
sessing in common with all other created animals, 
but more enlarged than them in degree, a portion 
of mental endowment which were he not a soul or 
spirit using for the purposes of its will the body 
and mind, would be adapted only to a state of a mere 
physical existence. Soul, a spirit without parts, 


an emanation from God, proceeding from the 
breath of Divinity itself. Matter capable of being 
moved and divided, possessing its due proportion 
of Extension, Kesistence and Gravitation. Mind, 
possessing a portion of intelligence, — the health 
and well-being of which appears to be identified 
with the health of the body itself, though it (the 
mind) is not a consequent of the body's mechan- 
ical arrangement, — soul, exhibiting a rational in- 
tellect, manifesting and possessing faculties of such 
a power as appear to be one in nature and char- 
acter with the highest order of created intelligence 
that we can possibly conceive to exist, matter, 
mind and soul. The first mutuable, perishable 
and mortal ; the second like the first, mutable and 
perishable ; the third imperishable and immortal, 
and mutable only as it regards its moral con- 
dition before God, and being imperishable and im- 
mortal, is superior to the other two, and therefore, 
the highest and chief portion of his identity. 
[" The soul is the man — a teaching in perfect har- 
mony with divine revelation, for we are told that 
man became a living soul.] Matter, mind and 
soul, entirely separate, apart and distinct in their 
natures, but by the wondrous and almighty work- 
ing of the Great Creator, forming one grand, har- 
monious and mysterious whole. Three natures 
distinct and contrary to each other in their essence; 
but severally manifesting on the part of their de- 
signer, an expression of infinite wisdom in their 
structure, an exhibition of infinite power, and in 
the preservation and enjoyment of their united ex- 
istence, a display of beneficence without measure or 


bounds. Man, the triune being of earth, created 
by the Trinity of Heaven. 

Having thus introduced the terms which one 
would conceive most suitable to express the iden- 
tity, nature and existence of man, we shall now 
rapidly glance at the several components of his 
being, merely as serving to illustrate his position, 
as defined by these terms ; and in proceeding to 
do so, would premise that the remarks which may 
follow, must necessarily be of a very general char- 
acter, inasmuch as any single part, point, or idea, 
in connexion with man, would furnish matter of 
discussion — the very introduction to which, might 
perhaps exceed the limits of an occasion such as 
the present. 

It has been well and beautifully observed by a 
celebrated writer, that u creation is graduated, and 
every creature has its proper place," and that in 
this scale of created being the totality or expression 
of an animal's framework indicates its position. If 
man be measured according to this standard, his 
superiority as a creature, is at once perceived. Not 
that the body of the brute or lower animal evinces 
in its construction or design, wisdom and power 
less infinite than are exhibited in the construction 
of the human frame, but because of its superior 
symmetry and beauty, indicating and in keeping 
with the superior purposes for which it was de- 
signed—a symmetry which announces the dignity 
of those purposes, whether we regard it as the 
temporary dwelling of a rational spirit, or the ani- 
mated machine through which that spirit performs 
the purposes of its will, considered as a dwelling 
only, its leading characteristics are dignity and 


beauty ; but regarded as a living machine, we are 
astonished at its adaptation and harmony — adap- 
tation to the intelligence which uses it. Harmony 
with the exterior world on which it is made to act. 
For not only with respect to himself as a whole 
being, but also with regard to the body itself, it 
may be fittingly observed — 

" Man is all symmetry, full of proportion, 
One limb to another, and to all the World beside." 

In regarding the body as a mere piece of mechan- 
ism, it possesses several peculiarities which place 
it as such, beyond all others. Its motion is dig- 
nified, its attitude commanding, its whole appear- 
ance intellectual. The only physical structure 
possessing animation, — the weight of which is sup- 
ported on the centre of an arch, — for there is no 
creature beside the human, whose foot is furnished 
with a heel. It springs from the earth, while all 
others in their motion on its surface (while walking) 
convey the idea of requiring effort in their action 
to enable them to rise. Nor until the burden of 
accumulated years is placed on its shoulders, does 
it require any foreign aid to keep it erect ; and 
while the an atom}' - of the mere animal exhibits in 
its design a tendency to, if not absolute fitness for 
motion, parallel to the surface of the earth ; the 
body's whole expression, together with its internal 
anatomy and construction, declare its great archi- 
tect intended that upright should be the position 
of the human form divine. A feature of our 
being which was beautifully remarked by a 
Heathen poet of antiquity. 


But as a certain class of writers have existed, 
and even some at the present day, who would en- 
deavor to make it appear that the erect posture is 
not peculiar to man only, but that other animals, 
such as the Chimpanzee and Ourang, possess it 
also, thereby endeavoring to shew in accordance 
with what they call the theory of developement, 
that man is but a mere animal improved by civil- 
ization, or in other terms, a well developed 
monkey. With a view to the correction of such, 
an opinion, it may not be amiss to quote from a 
work of acknowledged ability, a few remarks per- 
tinent to the question, — a work in the compiling 
of which, the best talent of Europe was engaged, 
and which is generally regarded as a standard au- 
thority. In the Cyclopedia of the Society for the 
diffusion of Useful Knowledge, Vol. 13, under the 
article " Man," and at page 357, it thus reads : — 
11 The lower extremities of man are remarkable for 
their length, which is proportionably greater than 
that of any other animal except those of the 
Kangaroo tribe." Now it is evident that no great- 
er obstacle to progession in the horizontal position 
could exist than this length of what would then 
be the hind legs. Either man would be obliged 
to rest on his knees, with his thighs so bent to- 
wards the trunk, that an attempt to advance would 
be painful, and with his legs and feet immoveable 
and useless ; or he should elevate his trunk on the 
extremities of his toes, throwing his head down* 
wards, and exerting himself forcibly at every at- 
tempt to move forward the thighs by a rotary 
motion at the hip joint; in either case the only- 
useful joint would be that at the hip, and the iega 


would be scarcely superior to wooden or other 
rigid supporters. The position of the human thigh 
in which it is most securely fixed in its deep ace- 
tabulum, is that which it has when supporting the 
body in the erect attitude. In the Chimpanzee 
and Ourang, its analogous position is at an oblique 
angle, with the body obliquely supported in fiord of 
it; thus shewing that while the erect attitude was 
evidently intended as that which man should nat- 
urally possess, the other creatures which approach 
him in external conformation only, exhibit in 
their anatomy, an adaptation naturally suited to 
the horizontal position, — an opinion confirmed 
also by the extraordinary length of arm which 
those creatures possess ; for in the use of the arm 
as a foreleg, such a position is natural and easy to 
them; v\hereas on the contrary, proportioned as 
the length of the arm is in man, the horizontal po- 
sition to him would not only be unnatural, but 
positively painful ; and therefore, one which his 
Creator (whose wisdom is infinite in design,) never 
intended that man should naturally occupy. So 
that not only the difference of their anatomy, but 
the difference of natural attitude also, evidently 
attest that man in his conformation, externally 
and internally, is a creature that could never have 
belonged to any of the Monkey tribes. Moreover, 
we would remind those who would endeavor to 
represent him as such, that the majority, if not the 
whole of those creatures, are four-handed, whereas 
man is only bimanous. So that measuring man 
by a well known law of nature, (laws which those 
individuals talk so much about,) that the organ is 
indicative of the intelligence which uses it, it 


would follow, from the hand being regarded as the 
sign of intelligence, that the creature possessing 
four, should be more intelligent than the creature 
possessing two, and consequently, man should 
possess a less intelligence than the monkey, — a 
conclusion which they must acknowledge, or else 
must confess, what we uncompromisingly main- 
tain, that there is between the human being and 
the mere animal, a chasm wide and impassable as 
the gulf between the Nadir and Zenith, of the in- 
finity of space. As to the statement made also by 
the advocates for the theory of development, that 
some of the monkey tribes are biped, the work 
from which we have quoted, replies, " The Illus- 
trations of their anatomjr, as exhibited by Mc- 
Owen, in Vol. 1, of Zoological Transactions, ren- 
der such a theory as extremely improbable." And 
it goes on to state " it is now perfectly certain, from 
repeated observation, that the gesture of those 
Ourangs who are most manlike, is never ajile nor 
easy, unless they employ a^ their limbs to support 
them." So that the theory of development with 
respect to man in the sense used by those who dis- 
allow his origin, as given by revelation, judging 
that theory b}' attitude, anatomy and one of the 
laws of nature, it fails in accomplishing what it 
avows to exhibit, namely : man as a. mere animal, 
a member of the monkey family, and improved 
only by circumstances, — circumstances accidental 
to the position orniche in creation which he origi- 
nally occupied when first called into existence. 
A theory in which is necessarily implied that the 
benign Creator of all things manifested an indiff- 
erence to the measure of happiness or enjoyment 


which his creature might ultimately possess, leav- 
ing the quantity of that happiness to be the sport 
of circumstances, or the creation of chance. A 
system which would ignore the benificence of the 
Creator, and therefore, to rational man, an absur- 
dity too gross to be entertained. Nor is it only as a 
mere piece of mechanism that the superiority of 
man's coporeal frame is exhibited. Not only is 
there intelligence in its attitude, and majesty in its 
motion, but as has been beautifully expressed 
" the hand of Divinity has left its impress on the 
brow." There is in its whole conformation, when 
contrasted with the frame- work of the lesser ani- 
mals, a symmetry exhibited which is better felt 
than described, for the most casual observer can 
perceive that there is no contrast to be seen in the 
proportion or harmony of its extremities, the 
arms are not too long for the body, neither the 
foot length, when compared with the whole leg ; 
the fore arm is in keeping with the measure from 
the elbow to the shoulder, the hand is eloquence 
itself, the hand possessing a thousand capabilities, 
none of which are exhibited by those creatures 
which approach him in shape. No not even the 
power of separating the fore-finger from the others 
for the purpose of pointing, because such an act 
would be an expression of rational intelligence. 
As a whole, the body is not merely in the aggre- 
gate harmonious, it is beautiful even in detail, — 
eliciting admiration in the relative proportion of 
all its parts one to another, as well as to the de- 
sign as a whole ; its firm, flexible and upright po- 
sition, combined with the dignity and ease of its 
movements. And though of all its organs it may 


be observed that all exhibit in their several ope- 
rations an excellency of adaptation which admits of 
no improvement either in construction or purpose, 
yet of these there are not a few which even at 
first sight announce on the part of their Maker, 
an infinity of resources, and claim from ourselves 
a wondering admiration at the surpassing beauty 
of their design. And of these, the most conspicu- 
ous are the eye, the ear, the tongue, the hand, the 
arm and the hip joint. The eye serving as a lucid 
portal through which the mind, by its faculty of 
perception, receives an idea or impression flowing 
from an outward or external object. The tongue 
capable of expressing almost any sound. The ear 
with a greater ease discerning the slightest modu- 
lation. The arm, with respect to the body, mov- 
ing in every direction. The hand moulding its 
grasp to every varied requirement, while the hip 
sustains the whole fabric, in almost any position 
in which accident or design may place it. 

Such is the body tangible to external things, and 
passive to the action of the elements, possessing all 
the properties of matter capable of being moved 
and divided, having, as observed previously, 
resistance and extension, in common with the 
other creatures by whom it is surrounded, affected 
by things external, affected in its existence by the 
like mutations which work their changes on the 
condition of the physical structure of the mere' 
animal. The body is mutable, perishable and 
mortal. Mutable as it regards the atoms which 
compose its structure, and perhaps of the human 
paore peculiarly so than that of any other crea* 


ture. Perishable, as being the subject of disease 
and decay. Mortal, as finally ceasing to exist. 

" Its life a short summer, 
Itself a flower, 
It dies, alas ! how soon it dies." 

Thus it follows what we know and learn of the 
body from observation and experience, its nature is 
essentially physical, and therefore by this portion 
of his being, man is linked to the material world, 
which world by this connexion, is thus represented 
in him. We shall now proceed to regard him as 
a mental being, not for the purpose of making any 
remarks as to his capabilities as such, or in refer- 
ence to the manner in which his mind operates, 
but rather with a view of marking the identity 
and existence of the mind as distinct from the 
identity and existence of the reasoning faculties of 
the soul, — the first being an endowment which he 
holds in common with the mere animal, — the lat- 
ter being the peculiar attribute of a rational and 
immortal spirit, — a distinction which is occasionally 
as clearly exhibited as any other extremes whidb 
seem to be united in his person; and in proceed- 
ing to notice the peculiarities of mind, would pre- 
mise, that as an intelligence which he holds in 
common with the lesser animal, we shall endeavor 
to shew from action exhibited in certain conditions 
of the mere creature's existence, that mivd is not 
necessarily the effect of the body's mechanical or 
organic arrangement ; and also seek to point out 
some of those distinctions which mark the mind 
of the man from that of the animal,— distinctions 


which appear to exist more in quantity than in 
quality, as the attributes and quality of mind as 
exhibited by man, are frequently exhibited by the 
lesser creatures also, at the same time requesting 
the audience to remember that when we make use 
of the term mind in reference to man, that we do 
so regarding it as entirely separate and distinct 
from that reason which he possesses as the rational 
intelligence of an immortal spirit. 

And here we would remark, that on a proper un- 
derstanding of the distinct existence and identity of 
the nature and powers of the mind, depends in a 
great measure the right perception of the existence 
and identity of man as a triune being. As the mid- 
dle nature in his existence, it may be regarded as 
the mysterious medium, or link, between those two 
portions of his being which appear to be, and 
really are, opposite to other in their nature and 
essence, namely, the body and soul ; and though 
evidently it (the mind) is neither matter nor spirit, 
yet in the mysterious working of the great de- 
signer of our existence, it appears to have been 
placed by him in man as if it were to a certain ex- 
tent manifesting an adaptation to the nature of 
both, operating like a mean between two ex- 
tremes. In its dependence on the body, arising 
from its intimate connexion with the organs of 
sense, the aspect of its nature, at first sight, would 
make it appear as if the conditions of its existence 
were physical, while on the other hand, in the ex- 
hibition of its higher capabilities, it glides into and 
manifests an adaptation to the rational and spirit- 
ual powers of the soul. In the connexion of its 
lesser functions with the body through the or- 


gans of sense it is difficult to point out where its 
identity begins; while its higher capabilities, when 
considered in their connexion with the reasoning 
faculties of the soul, render it still more difficult 
to determine where its identity ends. By its iden- 
tity, we would express its individuality, or exist- 
ence, as distinct from, though dwelling in, and 
acting through the body, as well as likewise dis- 
tinct from, though harmonizing with, and yet sub- 
servient to the reasoning faculties of the soul. With, 
respect to the physical portion of man, the mind 
is an active agent, the body to it is passive. This 
observation in a general sense, will apply to every 
class of mind, whether as possessed by the lower 
animals, or exhibited by those creatures which wo 
generally regard of them as possessing the most 
intelligence : lor a close observation of the several 
classes of the animal world, would lead us to infer 
that three distinct classes, types, or characters of 
mind, have been dispensed to, and exhibited 
through them by their great designer. The lowest 
character, or type, is bestowed on those creatures 
which we generally regard as occupying the lower 
ranks in the scale of animate creation. The sec-. 
ond on those of them, which, from the position 
they occupy in the grand design, come into closer 
connexion with man as a being intended to sub- 
serve the immediate purposes of his will, whether 
in reference to his necessities or enjoyments. The 
third, or highest form of mind, is bestowed on 
man only, and exhibited by no other creature but 
him alone. Of those several types or classes of 
mind, the first may be termed instinctive, the 
second reflective, the third, or highest, intellect- 


ual ; the difference between each being determined 
perhaps as much by quantity as quality. The 
merely instinctive mind can never exhibit reflect* 
ive powers, neither can the intellectual be exhibit- 
ed by those who possess the reflective only. The 
instinctive impels; the reflective may be partially 
influenced by circumstances; the intellectual may 
act in reference to consequences which the soul 
only can at first foresee. With respect to the 
mental capabilities of the merely instinctive crea- 
ture, they are necessarily very limited, such a 
creature being simply perceptive of sensation, per-^ 
ceptive of desire, and perceptive of physical obt 
jects, while in addition to these, the animal pos-= 
sessing reflective capabilities, appears not only ob-. 
servant of the accidents of nature, but also per-, 
ceptive of circumstances and observant of motives, 
whilst ths highest order of mind as exhibited in 
intellectual man, glides into a perception of the 
link between cause and effect. 

The creature possessing the merely instinctive 
mind, may be regarded as being passive to desire, 
perceptive of sensation, and having a capability of 
enjoyment in keeping with the limits of its atomic 
existence ; while apart from, or beside the con-, 
ditions of that existence, its mental endowments 
appear to reach only to a perception of external 
objects or things ; and even in this, to. a very lim~. 
ited extent, inasmuch as the instinctive mind is in 
several instances unable to discriminate between 
things as they really are, and as they appear to 
be. A trait of instinctive perception which is 
beautifully elucidated by Thompson, the Natural- 
ist, in his work on the passions of animals, Tttfrt, 


writer states: (Page 157,) "Instinct is sometimes 
at fault, and its powers are uselessly applied. A 
hen will sit with the greatest tenacity on rounded 
pieces of chalk. The Hamster rat will break the 
wings of dead birds as well as of living ones, be* 
fore it devours them. Insects also occasionally 
err on the same principle, as when the blow fly 
lays its eggs on the flower of the stapelia, being 
deceived by its carrion-like odor. A spider de- 
prived of its egg-bag, will cherish with the same 
fondness a little pellet of cotton, if thrown to it. 
From these facts might it not be inferred that this 
lowest form of mind, termed the instinctive, may 
in some measure be regarded as a property or law, 
infused into, or bestowed on mere animate matter, 
in like manner as gravitation and attraction were 
infused into matter inanimate? This opinion is 
not a new theory, for Addison, in one of his 
papers in the Spect-itor, writes: (Thompson, page 
161.) " I consider instinct as the immediate di- 
rection of Providence, and such an operation of 
the Supreme "Being, as that which determines all 
the portions of matter to their proper centre." He 
also says, — "I look upon instinct as upon the 
principle of gravitation in bodies, which is not to 
be explained by any known qualities inherent in 
the bodies themselves, nor from any laws of 
mechanism; but as an immediate impression from 
the first mover, and the divine energy acting in 
the creature. 1 ' This. opinion of Addison's, appears 
to be confirmed by observation, for Naturalists as- 
sert that several animals of the class Fcws, may 
be cut and divided almost ad infinitum, and each 
part will eventually become a perfect animal, 


(page 105,) and some insects after being divided, 
will live and perform most of the various func- 
tions with which they are endowed. From this 
it may be argued, that if in the divided or imper- 
fect state, those animals exhibit instinctive percep- 
tion, the conclusion inevitably follows that this 
merely instinctive or perceptive mind, appears in 
some respects to be analogous to the infused 
properties of inanimate matter; not confined to a 
particular locality in the creature, but pervading 
the whole mass, and existing in a part as well as 
in the whole. And as exhibited in some creatures; 
not exclusively dependent on, or governed solely 
by a nervous system or brain, and that the in- 
stinctive perception or mind of some lower animals 
may, or does exist, without this dependence on 
organic arrangement, may also be inferred from 
what has been stated by Naturalists, as the result 
of experiment or investigation. (Thompson, 167,) 
"If the Salamandra Maculata be deprived of its 
head, the trunk remains standing on its feet, and 
turns on being touched. Tortoises from which 
the brain has been abstracted, will live and wan- 
der about for months, feeling their way." It is 
asserted (by Thompson, 167,) that Azara caught 
two of those creatures without heads in a river in 
Paraguay, but they escaped back with as much 
speed and address, as if they had been uninjured. 
As a further proof in support of this theory, that 
the merely instinctive mind in the lower animals 
is analogous to the infused properties of inanimate 
matter, it may be submitted that those creatures 
which do not possess a brain, or nervous system, 
and where no organs are developed, that even 


these exhibit instinctive perception, — perception 
necessarily not connected with any organ, but ex- 
tending through and pervading the mass of the 
whole body, as in the Polypii. Thoss animals 
have an instinctive perception of light; when con- 
fined in a glass, should the glass be totally dark- 
ened or equally exposed to the light, no difference 
is manifested, but should the glass be partially 
shaded, the Polypii turns to the light; and that 
the instinctive perception exists in every part, and 
equally in the whole body, is evident ; for if it be 
divided, each part will equally seek the light; 
thus shewing that the whole body, and not a part, 
is possessed of the instinetive power. And here 
it may be also fittingly observed, that not in these 
respects ouiy to which we have alluded, is this an- 
alogy exhibited. That the merely instinctive 
mind resembles the infused property or law, is 
also seen in its not admitting of diminution or inv 
provement. That it admits of no diminution is 
exhibited alike in the Worm and the Polypii, 
and that it acquires nothing with a view to its im? 
provement, is evident from the fact that it ac- 
quires nothing from experience, for the instinctive 
mind has no infancy, nor a gradual development 
of powers. It enters at once, and without prepar? 
ation or training, on the discharge of the highest 
functions with which it is endowed, — a statement 
which appears to be confirmed in an experiment 
made by Galen. Galeu took a kid the moment it 
was born, and before it had seen its mother, and 
carrying it into a room placed before it Wine, Oil, 
Honey, Milk, Corn and Fruit. The creature after 
standing on its legs, smelled the different articles. 


and finally drank of the milk. Thompson 
also tells us that a chicken which Wall had hatch- 
ed by artificial heat, saw a spider and springing at 
it, seized it as if from previous practice. It is a 
well known fact that other chickens hatched by 
the same method, scratched the earth in search of 
food in the same manner as those hatched and ac- 
companied by a hen. 

Another feature of instinctive mind, and which 
also in some measure goes to support the infused 
theory, is what is termed by Naturalists the mis- 
takes of instinct. That is when the impulse ex- 
hibits itself under circumstances where it is ut- 
terly useless, and where its object can never be ob- 
tained. The tame squirrel in confinement, hoards 
up food which it never will require or touch. — - 
Well fed dogs will hide bones. Tame Ravens 
will conceal morsels of food, though an abund- 
ance is always before them. Fowls scratch 
for food on the surface of a yard, even when the 
yard is flagged or paved. And a tame Beaver, 
even when confined by his captor or owner, will 
evince the instinctive principle in vainly en- 
deavoring to construct a house. 

From these observations made by Naturalists 
in reference to portions of the Animal Kingdom, 
we infer the existence of several traits character- 
istic of instinctive mind. Firstly, that it is not 
exclusively dependant on, or governed solely by a 
brain. Secondly, it appears not to admit of dim- 
inution or improvement, as it enters at the first 
moment of its existence on the discharge of its 
highest functions. Thirdly, that it is frequently 
exhibited in a part as well as in a whole animal, 


and therefore must be regarded as pervading the 
whole mass. And fourthly, because of these pe- 
culiarities it is analogous to, or resembles the in- 
fused properties of mere inanimate matter. And 
lastly, as a conclusion from the whole inference, 
that mind is riot necessarily an effect of organic ar- 
rangement, — for if it were, any important alter- 
ation in the organic arrangement would in all cases 
produce a corresponding disarrangement in the in- 
stinctive perception, while the contrary appears to 
be the fact. Moreover, as if to shew that the full 
possession of organic arrangement does not neces- 
sarily ensure the possession of unerring instinctive 
mind, we occasionally find that creatures possess- 
ing their full organs, manifest or exhibit in several 
instances their instinctive perceptions both blindly 
and uselessly. Hence then may we not conclude 
of the merely instinctive mind that it is an infused 
law impelling animate matter: or in the words 
of the Christian Addison, ? " the divine energy act- 
ing through the creature, A fixed principle of 
limits defined by the Creator. The creature 
coming up to, and never exceeding the prescribed 
bounds. Instinctive mind, mind without conscious- 
ness or reflection." 

In addition to the measured portion of instinct- 
ive mind possessed by every animal, we find that 
they also exhibit a class of mental endowment, of 
a character or nature differing in several respects 
from the instinctive. This endowment appears to 
increase in quantity or power, in a ratio corres- 
ponding to the creature's position in the scale of 
creation, when considered in relation to man. 
This endowment may be defined as reflective 


mind; and like the instinctive, possessed by man 
in common with all other creatures by whom he 
is surrounded, but with this difference, that he 
possesses less than them of the instinctive, and 
more of the reflective, a peculiarity or diminution, 
which appears to present itself also with the nature 
of the lesser creatures as they severally rise in the 
scale of created being. Thus we find that the 
horse has a larger share of this intelligence than 
the animals which are more foreign than him in 
the nature of their services to man. The dog, 
more intimately man's companion than the horse, 
appears to have more of the reflective endowment. 
While yet the Elephant, when considered in re- 
ference to climate and circumstances, rendering 
services more important than either of the other 
two ; and as such, coming into closer contact with 
the human being, possesses a still greater measure 
of this intelligence. Indeed so much so, that some 
Naturalists call him the half reasoning animal, — 
a term made use of by Kirby in his Treatise on 
the wisdom, power and goodness of God. And 
though as a general rule it may be laid down that 
as the reflective increases, the instinctive decreases, 
yet it would appear that where the instinctive 
combined powerfully with the reflective, would 
tend to the service or convenience of man, it would 
appear then, that nature, or rather the Divine 
Being, introduces such an exception which only 
confirms the general rule, as instanced in the family 
of the dog. There is no other animal in creation 
that possesses like him so much of the instinctive 
and reflective combined ; a fact which is well il- 
lustrated by several anecdotes of that animal, and 


which shall be alluded to in due time. This re- 
flective mind as possessed by the higher animals 
is, as previously intimated, observant of the acci- 
dents of matter, perceptive of circumstances, and ob- 
servant of motives, and appears to exhibit itself in 
operation through the agency of four attributes, 
which we speak of as perception, retention, reflec- 
tion and comparison. Attributes, which appear 
to be more frequently exhibited by the mere ani- 
mal in extraordinary circumstances, than in the 
ordinary conditions of its existence, or in other 
words, the animal possessing reflective mind, the 
exercise of its powers are elicited more by extra- 
ordinary circumstances than by the ordinary rou- 
tine of daily life. To elucidate what we would 
convey, we shall now read from a work of ac- 
knowledged ability, an anecdote, as illustrative 
alike of the character of the mind, as well as the 
mode of its operation. We select it from a work 
entitled Lee's Anecdotes of Animals, published in 
Philadelphia, 1854. The article itself is descriptive 
of the sagacity of a dog, which was owned by Mr. 
Hogg, the celebrated Ettrick Shepherd, who in 
giving a description of the animal, said he was 
scarcely a year old. 

On one occasion, quotes the writer, "about 700 
lambs, which were under his care at weaning 
time, broke up at midnight, and scampered off, in 
three divisions, across the neighboring hills, in 
spite of all that he and an assistant could do to 
keep them together. The night was so dark that 
we could not see Sirrah ; but the faithful animal 
heard his master lament their absence in words 
which, of all others, were sure to set him most on 


the alert ; and without more ado, he silently set 
off in quest of the recreant flock. Meanwhile the 
shepherd and his companion did Dot fail to do all 
in their power to recover their lost charge; they 
spent the whole night in scouring the hills for 
miles around, but of neither the lambs or Sirrah 
could they obtain the slightest trace. They had 
nothing for it, day having dawned, but to return 
to their master, and inform him, that they had lost 
the whole flock of lambs, and knew not what was 
become of one of them. On our way home, how- 
ever, we discovered a lot of lambs at the bottom 
of a deep ravine, and the indefatigable Sirrah 
standing in front of them, looking around for some 
relief, but still true to his charge. The sun was 
then up, and when we first came in view, we con- 
cluded that it was one of the divisions which 
Sirrah had been unable to manage until he came 
to that commanding situation. But what was our 
astonishment, when we found that not one lamb 
of the whole flock was wanting. How he had 
got all the divisions collected in the dark, is be- 
yond my comprehension. The charge was left 
to himself from midnight till the rising sun, and 
if all the shepherds in the forest had been there to 
assist him, they could not have effected it with 
greater propriety." 

Now we said that the reflective mind in the 
mere animal was perceptive of circumstances ; who 
will deny such a perception to the dog of whom 
we have just read? And that he observed the 
motives which urged his master to mourn the loss 
of the lambs, is evidently as clear, for his action 
in instantly setting off in search of the scattered 


flock, shewed that he understood the master's wish. 
Now let us see the mode of his operation. Firstly, 
he perceives the circumstances which form the re- 
lation between the master, himself and the flock. 
This first operation and act of the reflective mind, 
we term perception, — that he continued to hold or 
keep this perception is evident, for had it been 
otherwise, he would not have continued to act 
until the purpose of his action was attained ; this 
holding or keeping of the perception, we term re- 
tention. The perception and retention combined, 
lead him to think as to his own conduct, action, or 
duty under the circumstances. This thinking is 
reflection, — a stage of his mental operation which 
also leads him to regard the mode, or means he 
must adopt for the effecting of his own, in refer- 
ence to his master's purpose ; in connexion with 
this act of mind is necessarily connected the scat- 
tered condition of the flock ; scattered in several 
directions ; this scattered condition obviously 
presents to the dog the necessity of comparing the 
advantages resulting from the adoption of one di- 
rection of pursuit, in preference to another. This 
last act is evidently comparison, and here, in this 
conduct of the animal, is clearly exhibited the op- 
eration of the mental endowment, and by its attri- 
butes, in the order thus expressed, as perception, 
retention, reflection and comparison, numberless 
anecdotes of a nature similar to that already re- 
lated, might be adduced as proofs of the reflective 
mind being possessed by the mere animal. In 
reference to the dog, we shall mention another told 
in Thompson's work on the passions of animals. 
At page 347, the author states : "a recent number 


of the Glasgow Post, relates the following tale : 
"a few days ago Hector McAlister, while on the 
Arran hills, looking after his sheep, six miles from 
home or other habitation, his two Coolie clogs 
started a rabbit which ran under a large block of 
granite. He thrust his arm under the stone ex- 
pecting to catch it, but instead of doing so, he re- 
moved the supports of the block which instantly 
came down on his arm, holding him as firmly as 
a vice. His pain was great, but the pangs he felt 
when he thought of home and the death he seemed 
doomed to die, were greater. In this position he 
lay from ten in the morning until four in the after- 
noon, when finding that all his efforts to extricate 
himself were unavailing, he tried several times, 
without effect, to get his knife out of his pocket 
to cut off his arm. His only chance now was to 
endeavor to send home his dogs, with the view of 
alarming his friends. After much difficulty, as 
the creatures were most unwilling to leave him, 
he succeeded ; and Mrs. MacAlister seeing them 
returning alone, took the alarm and collecting the 
neighbors, went in search of her husband, led on 
by the faithful Coolies. When they came to the 
spot, MacAlister was in a very exhausted state, 
and quite speechless with crying for assistance. — 
It took five men to remove the block from his 
arm. In this, as in the former anecdote, the con- 
duct of the animal evidently evinces the possession 
of reflective power. Their unwillingness to leave 
the master, shewed that they had a perception of 
his distressing circumstances ; while retaining the 
perception they are led to think as to his object in 
sending them away. The reflection at length 


leads them to understand his purpose. They act 
on the reflection, and in their return with assist- 
ance, doubtlessly anticipated the pleasing results 
which followed ; and in that very anticipation con- 
trasted, or compared, the deliverance of their mas- 
ter with his temporary misery. From these anec- 
dotes, and others of a similar character of the Ele- 
phant and Horse, as well as of the dog, may be 
perceived the correctness of the observation that 
extraordinary circumstances, — or generally at 
least — elicit the action of those reflective endow- 
ments from the mere animal ; while man as a crea- 
ture exhibits the endowment in the ordinary con- 
cerns of his every day life. In man also is con- 
firmed the theory that, as the reflective increases, 
the instinctive decreases,' — a truth which appears 
to be confirmed in the history of his own species, 
for it is a well known fact that the savage or bar- 
barian, — his instinctive perceptions operating 
through the organs of sense, are more acute and 
perceptive than those of the individual in the 
midst of civilization. It is asserted (Thompson 
29,) that the Aborigines of this Continent can not 
only detect a man at a great distance, but can also 
distinguish with certainty between white men and 
those of their own race. 

In addition to the instinctive and reflective 
mind, man also possesses the intellectual, the dif- 
ference between which and the reflective, appears 
to be occasioned more by quantity than by qual- 
ity. Perhaps the extent of its capability may be 
regarded as attaining only to a knowledge of the 
fact, that there exists a connexion between cause 
and effect, a limit which we can conceive the pos- 


sibility of a mere animal arriving at, but beyond 
which the mere animal can never go. For to en- 
quire into an effect, and investigate the connexion 
in reference to its cause, is a power and operation 
which belong exclusively to reason. Hence may 
be inferred the reasonableness of presuming that 
the intellectual mind differs only from the reflect- 
ive in quantity. And as the reflective mind in 
the mere animal is made to subserve the conve- 
nience or purposes of intellectual man, so the in- 
tellectual mind answers the purposes, and sub- 
serves the convenience of the rational and rea- 
sonable immortal soul. Mind is not reason. We 
make use of the term intellectual in reference to 
mind, in the same sense as we would say a spirit- 
ual body, for as by the expression spiritual 
body, we would simply imply a body suited to 
the purposes or condition of a spiritual existence. 
So by intellectual mind, we would simply imply 
a mind which when brought into connexion with, 
would suit the purposes and harmonize with the 
reasonable faculties of a soul or spirit essentially 
intellectual. Mind is not reason. We desire to be 
emphatic in the distinction, because that such an 
opinion is not only in harmony with the ordinary 
conditions of our being, but also seems to unveil 
much of the mysterious that enshrouds the eccen- 
tricities of our existence, if mind may be defined 
as the intelligence of an animal, reason must 
be regarded as the intelligence of an immortal 
spirit. The first dependent for its harmony on 
the physical condition of the body, the other in- 
dependently exhibiting the harmony of its powers, 
aven when that portion of the body with which 


the mind appears to be connected, is diseased. 
Mind is the intelligence of a mere animal. Reason 
the intelligence of a rational and immortal spirit. 
If man's intellectual mind differs only in quantity 
from the reflective of the mere animal, then there 
is an evident propriety in calling the attributes of 
the greater by the same terms which we would 
adopt as signs of the attributes of the lesser. — 
Hence the operations of the intellectual may be 
regarded also as being performed by perceptioD, 
retention, reflection and comparison. And these 
may operate combinedly and harmoniously in 
man, without being exhibited in action. When man 
acts, he is moved by the operation of yet another 
and higher intellectual power. That power is the 
suasion of the soul's will, — the point or line where 
intellectual mind appears to blend with, or glide 
into, the reasoning of the immortal soul. The 
boundary as before stated, where it is difficult to 
point out the termination of the mind's identity. 
But it may be asked if the intellectual mind differs 
only in quantity from the reflective of the mere an- 
imal, may not the mere animal also not act even 
when the attributes of his mind have been in op- 
eration ? To this it might be replied that the pos- 
sibility of such a choice does not appear to exist 
in the creature. The animal must act. He has no 
will to enable him to choose, for when urged by the 
authority of his ruler man, man impels him only in 
the direction of his instinctive nature, and which 
he simply acts out and follows subservient to the 
purposes and guidance of his reflective mind. So 
that from the analogy of these considerations, it 
may be premised, that the instinctive is passive to 


the reflective, the reflective to the intellectual, and 
the intellectual to the higher intelligence of the 
reasonable spirit. A harmony or law which ap- 
pears to be exhibited in man as a creature. For 
in seeking and imbibing a nourishment in his 
early existence man exhibits his instinctive mind, 
in acquiring the use of his organs, the reflective, 
in receiving the rudiments of his knowledge the 
intellectual; reason he exhibits in acts which have 
a special reference to a future, whether that future 
be bounded by his existence on earth, or extend 
in its duration beyond the limits of his grave. 

In concluding our remarks on intellectual mind, 
it may be observed that in addition to its being 
able to know that a connexion may or must exist 
between an effect seen and its cause which may 
not be seen, it may also be distinguished from the 
merely reflective in the following particulars. It 
has a perception of, and is affected by the beauti- 
ful which exists in contrast, whether the contrast 
be exhibited in form, color, or sound. But its chief 
and peculiar characteristics is in the two-fold as- 
pect which it presents in its relation to the soul. 
In the infancy of the soul's reason it appears to 
be the medium through which the latent powers 
of the reason are aroused ; and when those pow- 
ers are aroused and partially developed, submit- 
ting to their control with a passive obedience. 
And hence, the intellectual mind may be denned 
as an intelligence possessing a perfect adaptation 
to subserve the purposes of man's rational and im- 
mortal spirit. It is finite mind, suited to a capacity 
harmonizing with the infinite. 



In presuming to speak of the human soul, 
we do so impressed with a deep sense of its 
magnitude and importance, — an importance aris- 
ing from the condition of its nature, which ia 
spiritual and immortal ; its magnitude, when con- 
sidered in reference to its powers, exceeding in 
capacity the grasp of our finite minds. The more 
we consider, the more deeply are we impressed 
with a sense of our utter incapability of entirely 
comprehending it. Viewing it only in reference 
to its mysterious existence, in the words of the 
great Johnson, the fact of that existence is too 
simple for eloquence, too sacred for fiction and too 
majestic for ornament ; like its great Creator, it 
is to us entirely incomprehensible, traced only in 
the nature and through the operation of its own 
works. We are unable to analyse it in its essence, 
it has no parts to be anatomized, and because un- 
able to comprehend, therefore unable to define it. 
Though viewing it in reference to its origin, its 
nature and powers, it may in some sense, be re- 
garded as a ray from the infinite, animating the 
finite ; an existence created by the eternal, designed 
for immortality, and endowed with an intelligence 
capable of harmonizing with the infinite itself, 
harmonizing so far as to understand and enjoy 
much of the beautiful which the great Creator has 
exhibited in the structure of the universe, as well 
as a capability of appreciating the goodness dis- 
played in that creation, together with the wisdom 
and power combined The attributes of this intek 
ligence appear to be and are superior to the attri* 


butes of the intelligence possessed by the mere 
animal, for while the intelligence of the mere ani- 
mal is chiefly exhibited in reference to material 
objects and things, the intelligence of the soul 
possesses a power not only capable of acting in 
reference to those material things, but also posses- 
ses the capability- of acting in reference to things 
immaterial and unseen, — immaterial so far as being 
intangible to sense, unseen because incapable of 
being transferred to the retina, or perceived by 
the organs of vision. This intelligence of the 
human soul is called reason, differing from man's 
animal and intellectual mind not only in the capa- 
city of its powers, but also in the quality of its 
nature : for while the animal mind is dependant 
for the harmony of its powers on the condition of 
the brain, the powers or faculties of the soul's 
reason are occasionally exhibited even when the 
brain is diseased, and the mind necessarily disar- 
ranged, thus shewing that the human soul, though 
dwelling in, and acting through the body, pos- 
sesses and exhibits an intelligence not dependant 
like the mind on the condition of the body itself, 
and therefore because not dependant for the har- 
mony of its powers on the condition of the body, 
necessarily differing from the mind in the quality 
of its nature. That such a positive and definite 
distinction should exist between the reason and 
mind, may at first sight appear strange ; but when 
we remember that the one is an intelligence adapted 
to the condition of a mere animal ; and the other 
an intelligence suited to an immortal spirit, therea-r 
sonableness of such a distinction both in capacity 
and quality will then at once appear. And as 


was previously remarked in reference to the reflect- 
ive mind of the mere animal, that its identity as 
distinct from the animal's instinctive mind, was 
chiefly manifested and seen in circumstances dif- 
fering from those connected with the ordinary 
state of the creature's being. So here it may be 
also observed, that the identity of the soul's rea- 
son as distinct and separate from the mind, is also 
exhibited and perceived in circumstances which 
certainly must be regarded as not the ordinary 
conditions of our existence. In our ordinary state 
of being, such is the beautiful harmony with 
which the different components of our nature and 
identity are arranged, that an individual is prop- 
erly regarded as one whole distinct and undivided 
person, yet there are certain conditions in which 
we exist, wherein man is spoken of as a being of 
several components ; thus we say of a man who 
may be in a state of insanity, that the man is de- 
ranged, or his mind is deranged, the latter form 
evidently implying that the mind in itself is dis- 
tinct from the body. And even without express- 
ing this distinction, men in their acts evidently 
acknowledge that those several components exist, 
for men speak of developing the powers of the 
body, as well as of developing the powers of the 
mind ; but when those only are drawn out, the 
education of the whole man is not complete. They 
also speak of instructing the soul, for they think, 
— and wisely, — for the soul to be without know- 
ledge would not be good. And that the soul must 
possess an intelligence independent of the mind, 
may be perceived here ; for while the body and 
its powers are only physically developed, the 


mind is educated intelligently, and the instruction 
for the human soul is given also as to a rational 
intelligence. But in order to shew where the soul 
manifests its intelligence, independantly of the 
mind, while dwelling in the body, we shall first 
endeavor to point out some of those operations 
which the faculties of reason can perform, opera- 
tions to which we have no evidence that the mind 
Of a mere animal can ever attain, points of dis- 
tinction between mind and reason which we can 
scarcely conceive the possibility of being disputed 
even by a materialist. 

In his connection with the material world, and 
in his operations on it, whether mechanical, chemi- 
cal or electrical, man may be said through or in 
the exercise of his reason to compare analogies, 
determine proportions and foresee consequences, com- 
prehending the circumstances of the present; 
and uniting with those circumstances the past with 
its antecedents, he anticipates a future. And, 
though in common with the other creatures by 
whom he is surrounded, man is affected by things 
external : yet the intelligence of his higher na- 
ture is in no instance (apart from revelation,) more 
clearly exhibited or seen than in the achievements 
which this higher intelligence accomplishes when 
directing its powers to the investigation of the 
physical world in its conditions of that which may 
be termed the invisible and unseen. The unseen 
as it exists in the material world without its mani- 
festing itself perceptibly to sense, hut only through 
its effects, by its action on matter, and this in pro- 
portion to its magnitude or quantity, as electricity, 
magnetism or gravity. The investigation of the 


unseen, also,' — which may be defined immaterial, 
but the existence of which is not the less real, and 
though contained in everj atom and pervading 
the universe' — is unaffected by quantity ; not in its 
existence manifest or tangible to sense or mere 
physical perception, comprehended only by a ra- 
tional and spiritual intelligence. This unseen is 
truth in science, or science so called ; perceptible 
to the reasoning faculties or power of this higher 
intelligence and nature in man, and investigated 
by him in the different modifications of idea under 
which he regards it, whether as design, harmony 
or proportion ; design in the beauty and arrange- 
ment of the atoms which compose the material 
universe, harmony in their laws, control, and pres- 
ervation, proportion in their influences, order, and 
motion; design, which leads us to cultivate astron- 
omy, the secret of their harmony is revealed by 
Geometry, number is inseparably connected with 
proportion. Nor is it only in the investigating 
and comprehending of those conditions of the 
physical world, which are imperceptible to sense 
and intangible to matter, that the distinct identity 
and superiority of man's reasoning powers as a 
spiritual being are clearly exhibited. Not only 
does reason unfold to him the properties of 
the several atoms which compose this earth, the 
nature of their qualities and the purposes of their 
design, but with an authority that knows no re- 
sistance, compels those atoms to yield him a pass- 
tive obedience, and minister to his purposes; and 
though by his power or knowledge, unable to di* 
vest them of a single quality with which the Great 
Creator has endowed them, yet in the exercise of 


his reasoning faculties, He can so harmonize their 
opposite and discordant natures, that subduedly 
they combine to serve Him. And though of the 
soul's reason it may be observed, that in its ref- 
lation to the external world, it is generally regard- 
ed as an active agent, yet it does appear that there 
is in the human soul itself a power to which rea- 
son is occasionally passive. That power is the 
will — reason may suggest as to the possibility or 
mode of performing any act which the soul may 
regard as the means to an end ; yet the will pre- 
vious to action, determines as to the perform- 
ance or not of such act. Therefore to an extent 
we may not define, the will may be regarded as 
the first and greatest power of the soul, inasmuch 
as without its co-operation or permission, reason 
may not exhibit itself in action ; and though the 
will may not, or cannot be coerced, it may be in- 
fluenced : influenced by a power of the soul which 
generally approves of the motives suggestive of the 
will's action. This power is conscience — conscience 
may be defined as the soul's voice attesting whether 
the action flowing from the will be good or evil. 
And because that all action done or performed by 
man, is an exhibition of purpose or design,ias sug- 
gested by any one or more of these powers com- 
bined, we therefore are led to regard them, the 
will, reason and conscience, as the first and 
greatest powers of the soul. Powers which occa- 
sionally appear to evince themselves in action, in 
circumstances which must be regarded as above 
and beyond the body, and therefore above and be- 
yond the mind, because such is the harmony or con- 
nexion between the human body and mind, that 


the physical powers and animation of the one can- 
not be wholly prostrated without prostrating the 
mental powers and animation of the other also. This 
is a statement which observation and experience 
would appear to confirm, for we know that when 
from weakness or accident, the bodily powers are 
prostrate, as in a swoon or faint, the mind in 
that state has no consciousness, and performs no 
operation, and because affected while in that state 
in the same ratio in which the body is affected, 
therefore must be regarded while thus prostrate, 
as wholly incapable and unable to act. As an il- 
lustration of the will acting independently of the 
body, we would submit the case of a Colonel 
Townsend, who resided in England, and of whom 
an account is given by the celebrated Dr. Cheyne, 
in a work written (by that Physician,) on English 
malady, published in London, in 1733. The Dr. 
says: " a Colonel Townsend residing near Bath, 
sent for Drs. Bayard and Cheyne, and a Mr. 
Skrine, to give them an account of a singular sen- 
sation which he had for some time felt, which 
was that he could expire when he pleased, and 
(mark the following expression,) by an effort come 
to life again." He insisted so much on their see- 
ing the trial made, that they were forced at last to 
comply. They all then felt his pulse, which was 
distinct, and had the usual beat. He then com- 
posed himself on his back for some time, and after 
a while, with the nicest scrutiny, the Physicians 
were unable to discover the least sign of life, and 
at last were satisfied that he was actually dead, 
(Moore 2, 244.) They were about to retire and 
leave him, with the idea that the experiment had 


been carried too far, when they observed a slight 
motion in the body, the pulsation of the heart re- 
turned, and he again recovered. 

Now in this, which is a well authenticated fact, 
it appears that the body was at least wholly pros- 
trate, the physicians were satisfied he was dead, but 
as himself stated, came to life again, by an effort ; 
we simply ask what was the nature of that effort ? 
Was it physical ? It could not have been so, for 
the body had no animation, and therefore could 
make no effort, no matter how small or weak ; 
neither could it have been mental, for the body 
had been changed from the state in which only 
mind manifests itself, — for in all conditions of 
existence that we know, mind only exhibits itself 
in connection with animation. (Mind is never ex- 
hibited by the inanimate.) Therefore in this in- 
stance we are led to conclude that the effort was 
the act of an intelligence dwelling in the body, yet 
above and superior to, separate and distinct from 
the body and mind. It was the soul's intelligent act 
through the operation of its own will, that will 
which first suspended by its effort the body's ani- 
mation, and by a similar effort restored the anima- 
tion, together with the consciousness of that mind 
which was dependant on the body for its harmony 
and manifestation. 

Nor is there wanting on record evidence to 
shew that individuals have lived who acted on the 
belief that a knowledge of scientific truth could be 
obtained by the human soul, when exercising its 
reasoning powers untramelled by the body, more 
easily than when those powers were clogged in 
their operations by the incapacity of the waking 


mind. A singular illustration of this is afforded 
in the history of the philosopher Carden, an 
Italian physician who lived in the 16th century, 
and who is spoken of as being a man of great note 
in his time ; he was skilled in mathematics and 
astronomy. In a volume of his works which 
was published in 1683, at Lyons, in France, 
he states, (such was his consciousness of the soul's 
distinct identity,) that the propositions which ap- 
peared difficult to him in his waking hours, he 
frequently mastered and demonstrated them by 
the reasonings of his soul, during his sleep, hav- 
ing as he stated, previously composed himself to 
sleep for that purpose. Nor need the statement 
of Carden be doubted, for the Marquis Condorcet, 
a celebrated French Philosopher, who died in 
1794, occasionally left his complicated mathemat- 
ical calculations unfinished, when obliged to re- 
tire to rest, and like Carden in his sleep or rest, 
frequently saw the results of the calculations 
through the operations of his soul's reason, (Moore 
2,111.) Examples of a still stranger character 
than these, might be submitted, and yet more clear- 
ly than those, illustrating the action of the soul's 
reason, independently of the condition of the body 
or mind ; we shall mention but another on the 
written and published authority of a physician 
personally known to a gentleman residing in this 
city and now in this room, — a gentlemen who from 
the implicit confidence he has in the character ' 
and integrity of his friend, states that he is quite 
certain the circumstance about to be related must 
have occurred, or it never would have been record- 
ed by that physician's pen. (Body, 554, i, lxvii.) 


Of all the diseases to which our humanity is pas- 
sive, perhaps there is noDe so awful as that of Hy- 
drophobia. While suffering under that awful mal- 
ady the body only or alone is not in agony, the mind 
also is dreadfully distressed, and of the two appears 
to labor under the greatest a mount of torture ;• what- 
ever may be the balance of its rationality it then 
appears as if it were entirely disarranged, indeed 
so much so, that the friend, or closely allied rela- 
tive may not unguardedly approach the bed-side 
of the sufferer, either to alleviate the physical pangs 
or calm the mental distresses of poor stricken hu- 
manity ; the sufferer occasionally manifesting a 
desire to destroy his attendant, his agony inten- 
sified in a consciousness that he possesses no con* 
trol to overcome the propensity ; so dreadful is 
his state of mental agony and excitement, that in 
the words of the physician from whom we quote 
the fact which follows, " a breath of air, a ray of 
light, a motion or sound, even a thought of much 
more the appearance of a bright or shining object, 
excites the fiercest convulsions," and }^et while in 
this state, the minister of Jesus Christ has ap- 
proached the bed-side of the sufferer, and having 
invited him to partake of the memorials of dying 
love, the soul, addressed through its conscience, 
rising above the stricken body and unbalanced 
mind, exhibited the distinct identity of its reason 
and will, in enabling the agonized with the calm- 
ness and placidity of a child, to stretch forth his 
hands, and while he firmly and steadily drank 
from the shining chalice, exhibited in the act, and 
.for a while, a peaceful ness in his countenance as 


though he felt no bodily agony or suffered no 
mental alienation. 

If there are any who would draw from these 
statements a conclusion different from that which 
we would presume to infer, we would respectfully 
call the attention of such to the following as per- 
tinent to the question, it being an extract from the 
writer to whom we have previously alluded. 
Moore, at the 201st page of his work, "The power 
of the Soul," thus writes : " It is a remarkable 
fact that in many instances, disorder of faculty, 
more particularly of memory, have resulted 
from organic disease of the brain. Yet individ- 
uals so afflicted, nevertheless, have had lucid in- 
tervals and a perfect restoration of memory, a res- 
toration so marked in some cases as to have 
induced the hope of recovery when death had 
been near at hand, and had even rapidly ensued 
from the enerease of the very disease which had 
caused the insanitjr." The writer goes on to say, 
"Mr. Marshall states that a man died with a pound 
of water on his brain, who just before death be- 
came perfectly rational, although he had been a 
long time in a state of idiotcy." Doctor Holland 
refers to similar cases, and I have seen one myself. 
Doctor Winslow states that the insane rarely die 
in a state of mental alienation. Now we would 
ask, from these statements may not the inference 
be fairly drawn that if the mind has not been cre- 
ated anew on such occasions, in accommodation to 
the organic defects, are we not inevitably led to 
conclude that an intelligence exists within the 
man as distinct in its identity from the mind "as 
the light of Heaven, though it may be like that 


light shaded awhile from our view" by the passing 
cloud of mental aberration, arising from organic 

In addition to the three primary powers or fac- 
ulties of the soul, namely, Will, Keason and Con- 
science, the great Creator has endowed it also with 
three simple passions, and which are severally 
known as Love, Hope and Joy. Love, may be re- 
garded in the abstract as the soul's intense desire 
for an object ; hope, the expectation of possessing 
it ; joy, the soul's emotion when the object is ob- 
tained. Of these three passions, the first must be 
regarded as the greatest, for without it the other 
two can be scarcely said to exist. Those passions 
appear to possess several peculiarities of a beauti- 
ful and extraordinary character. At the present we 
shall notice but one, the fact, that between them and 
the primary powers there exists a connexion inti- 
mate and beautiful, and of such a nature and char- 
acter that each primary faculty may be understood 
as being represented by its corresponding passion. 
Thus the will, by love; reason, by hope; and con- 
science in joy. This connexion is not merely 
imaginary or ideal, for the humblest capacity can 
understand that ere the soul loves, the will first in- 
clines to the object. Hope can build her structure 
only where reason lays the foundation, and before 
that real joy can exist conscience must approve, 
firstly as to the object, secondly as to the mode or 
means of procuring it; and thirdly its relation to 
others as well as to ourselves. The will is exhib- 
ited in love, reason in hope, conscience in joy. 
Love, like the will is voluntary, hope, like reason, 


must be rational, and real joy like the untroubled 
conscience is eves pure. 

But in addition to these the three primary pow- 
ers and three passions, all of which may be regarded 
as the essentials of the human soul, its great Cre- 
ator occasionally or frequently endows it also with 
gifts of such a character as may, with strict propri- 
ety, be termed the ornamental and beautiful, and 
of which from the contemplation of their nature it 
would appear that their existence or origin is di- 
rect from a source independant of all material or- 
ganization ; evident from the fact that all who 
possess do not necessarily transmit them like 
their primary powers and passions to their chil- 
dren and posterity. " Talent," said Coleridge, 
" lying in the understanding, is often inherited, — 
but genius being the action of reason and imagina- 
tion, rarely or never." " Genius," said Sir Joshua 
Keynolds, " is the power of producing excellen- 
cies which are out of the reach of the rules of art, 
— a power which no precepts can teach, and which 
no industry can acquire." Of this latter opinion 
we would remark that it appears to be in perfect 
harmony with observation and experience, and in 
support of which might be submitted the illus- 
trious Mozart, Benjamin West, Chatterton, and 
others, personages who exhibited the gifts and their 
powers at an age in their respective lives which 
could scarcely admit of instruction by rule or 
of constant application. Mozart, while a child 
in his mother's arms, would raise his head and lis- 
ten to the sounds from the church-bells of his na- 
tive city ; ere he had seen his ninth summer he 
played before and astonished the King and Court 


of France. "West, while yet a child, faithfully 
delineated the countenance of his baby brother 
whom he had rocked to sleep in his cradle. 

These and facts of a similar character, confirm 
what we have premised, that their origin is not 
in ns, nor their existence from ourselves, — a truth 
which even the most sensual as well as the most 
intellectual are not unwilling to acknowledge. 
11 Of seven peasants," exclaimed the 8th Henry of 
England, " I can make seven Lords, but God only 
could make another Hans Holbein." It is told of 
Titian, that having on an occasion accidentally 
dropped his pencil, Charles 5th, who was standing 
by, lifted it with his own hand, and presenting it 
to the artist, said, u Titian is worthy of being 
served by Caesar." The compliment of the Em- 
peror was a homage that he paid to the divinity 
of genius. 

Impressed then with the seal of direct trans- 
mission from Heaven, they appear to reflect or 
shadow forth the attributes of the wondrous Being 
from whom they emanate and by whom they are 
bestowed on man. Those gifts are termed by 
men " inspirations of genius," but more properly 
defined as gifts ornamental, endowments from God, 
Poetry, painting and music, — spiritual, intellectual 
and infinite ; spiritual so far as not being incom- 
patible with, but rather in keeping with a state of 
spiritual existence, — reason suggesting the possi- 
bility of enjoying them therein; intellectual, be- 
cause eliciting and employing the highest powers 
of imagination ; infinite, not only in respect to 
their diversity of operation, but also as being 
possessed by their recipients without reference to 


measure or bounds. If for a moment we would 
regard those gifts as atoms in creation, and con- 
sidering them as such in relation to the Divine 
Being, then, like all other creatures, they are only 
expressions of His wisdom made tangible to sense, 
but when considered in respect to man, they are to 
him adjuncts of a character extraordinary, present- 
ing themselves to his imagination as iinks of a 
mysterious chain which binds him to a world 
spiritual and unseen, and the encircling of which 
holds him as a point in that vast circumference 
whose centre is God. Poetry, painting and music, 
not only ornamental and beautiful, and adapted 
to the highest exercise of man's intellectual facul- 
ties, but possessing also the power of encreasing or 
enlarging his enjoyments, in the proportion of 
his admiration of the gift, or, as his gratitude to 
the giver encreases. 

In addition to their excellency as gifts worthy 
the Benefactor, or as adding to or encreasing the 
enjoyments of those who possess them, there is 
another point also from which the beauty of those 
inspirations is seen, — a power which they possess 
of assimilating themselves to the imagination of 
those who possess them while retaining their own 
originality; this, is a feature in their character 
that excites our admiration. For while on the 
one hand they appear to shadow forth in their 
own the attributes of that wondrous Being's na- 
ture who gave them an existence and bestowed 
them on man, they appear on the other to catch 
from him on whom they are bestowed an ex- 
pression which they reflect as the mirrored image 
of the soul of their possessor. Thus it was of the 


great masters. Though equally inspired, each 
was marked by a style as peculiarly his own. The 
innate majesty of Raphael is expressed in the 
loftiness of his conception, breathing through his 
majestic master-piece, the painting of the Transfig- 
uration. Titian's ardent soul is still seen in the 
richness and warmth of his coloring ; Rubens was 
generous in his character and prepossessing in his 
appearance : he is described as excelling in those 
portions of his gift which act immediately on the 
senses. As a type of a class from the poets, none 
may be more fittingly selected than the calm and 
gentle Petrarch, — his chastened and subdued pas- 
sion is ever mingled with the angelic strains of 
his lyre. IIow beautifully was the unfettered and 
independent soul of Burns reflected in his mem- 
orable words, " The rank is but the guinea's 
stamp, the man's the gold for a' that." 

In noticing the characteristics of poetry, paint- 
ing and music, as three inspired gifts of the soul, 
one of the most peculiar of these is a connexion 
or analogy that exists between the gifts and the 
passions, a connection somewhat similar to that 
which exists between the passions and the primary- 
faculties, and as previously remarked of each, 
faculty having a corresponding passion, so here 
it may be observed, that each passion has a cor- 
responding gift. Thus there is an analogy between 
poetry and love, between painting and hope, be- 
tween music and joy. And as before observed, 
the analogy when investigated presents us, as in 
the former instance, an evidence of reality which 
appears to be rational. Let love be defined as an 
impassioned emotion ; poetry is the language 


through, which that emotion is expressed; hope is 
imagination realizing love's future ; painting is 
the conception of the imagination portraye I ; 
music is the harmony of the past combined w th 
the present, gliding into the future ; joy is the 
soul's delight in reference to the past, the present 
and future of its object combined, so that be- 
tween these three points of time there must be 
harmony necessary to the condition of joy as well 
as of music. Hence there is a music in joy as well 
as joy in music. So that music may be said to 
represent joy ; painting, hope; and poetry, love ; 
poetry, painting and music, symbols of his nature 
as well as the media through which he speaks 
the language of his passions. If music be a spir- 
itual enjoyment, painting a material act, and poetry 
the language of emotion, then music is spiritual 
and would represent his soul. Poetry, as intellec- 
tual would indicate his mind ; painting, a material 
act expressive of his material existence. 

Did convenience permit us to investigate en- 
quiringly the powers, passions and gifts of the hu- 
man soul, much would pass in review before us of 
a character wonderful and mysterious, and all hav- 
ing a tendency to shew that man is to a great ex- 
tent the reflection of that wondrous Being who 
gave him an existence. But as the present will 
not admit us to bestow on them the attention 
that such an investigation should command, we 
shall only notice but another of the characteristics 
of the highest and chief portion of his being in 
connexion with his gifts. That to which we now 
invite your attention is the fact, that the primary 
powers of the soul, — will, reason and conscience ; 


the passions, love, hope and joy, and such gifts as 
man may have received, whether poetry, painting 
or music, that all these severally or unitedly com- 
bined have in their existence, an intimate connex- 
ion with a 'point of time always distant from the 
'present, and which is defined by us as the future. 
This connexion is easily perceived, when we re- 
member that in reference to an act to be done in 
the future, his will determines, reason contem- 
plates it, and conscience of the will's intention ap- 
proves or disapproves ; love acts for it, hope lives 
for it, and the harmony of the future with the 
present is necessary to the existence of joy. Of 
music, joy's corresponding gift, the same remark 
may be made, because the harmony of the future 
with the present is one of the conditions in which 
music exists. Painting being the conception of 
the imagination portrayed, each touch of tr;e pen- 
cil is laid in reference to that which is to follow; 
and of the future, poetry sings when the passions 
require. So that from these observations it may 
be perceived that the great Creator of man evi- 
dently intended that our faculties in their opera- 
tions, our passions in their existence, and our 
gifts in their uses and enjoyments, 'that all these 
should have a direct reference to a period of time 
always distant from the present, and as a conse- 
quence resulting from the conditions of our own 
being, a tendency of being gradually led to a con- 
stant contemplation of the future. This is an obser- 
vation, in the truth of which all men are agreed, 
for its truthfulness is felt and seen in the daily 
transactions of life, and must be perceptible even 
to the ignorant and unlearned. And, though ifc 


may be agreed to by all, yet it gives rise to a 
question, in the answer to which all are not agreed. 
Concerning this future with which we appear to 
be so intimately connected, men ask "does it 
terminate for us with our existence on earth, or 
have we also with it an existence beyond the 
grave?" The answer to this question from an 
audience like the present is easily anticipated. 
Men who believe in revelation reply in the affirm- 
ative, for life and immortality have been brought 
to light by the Gospel ; but strange as the asser- 
tion may appear, there are those in the 19th cen- 
tury who deny the truth of revelation, and whose 
answer to the question would be given in the neg- 
ative, and who would also at the same time tell us, 
that nothing existed in nature to warrant the be- 
lief in a future existence. To this it might be re- 
plied, that the God of revelation claims to be, and 
is the God of nature or creation, — a truth evident 
from the fact that the one, is the only and most 
rational account we have of the origin of the other, 
and inferred also from the perfect harmony exist- 
ing between them, and from which we would argue, 
that so long as this harmonjr exists without discre- 
pancjr or disagreement, the conclusion naturally 
follows, that whoever will acknowledge the teach- 
ings of the one is inevitably led to confess the teach- 
ings of the other also. To any rational and unpre- 
judiced mind the fairness of this conclusion must at 
once appear ; but as the objectors to man's future 
existence be} r ond the grave do not find it convenient 
to acknowledge the harmony between creation and 
revelation, let us in glancing rapidly at the 
question of future existence confine ourselves to 


those general teachings of the Book of Nature 
which are allowed by the objectors themselves, 
and seek from their own premises to draw such an 
inference as must lead them to acknowledge not 
merely the possibility but the probability of that 
existence, which is termed the immortal, — an ex- 
istence which is shadowed forth in nature, as well 
as declared in revelation ; and though its reality 
may only be dimly perceived through themedium 
of the one, both its life and immortality are clearly 
exhibited in the light celestial of the other. 

In reading the Book of Nature in reference to 
the question of man's existence in a future state, 
there are some leading peculiarities exhibited by 
her in her operations, to which we would now ask 
your special attention ; those peculiarities are of 
such a character as cause them to be regarded and 
defined even by materialists themselves, as laws of 
nature. Amongst those laws the following may 
also be enumerated : first, she bestows on every 
creature a certain amount of happiness or enjoy- 
ment in harmony with the conditions of its own 
existence; secondly, for the realizing of this en- 
joyment the creature is endowed with a desire and 
an adaptation ; and thirdly, as a general rule, in 
no instance when the desire and adaptation are 
combined, has she denied the creature, either the 
power or possibilit}^ of the enjoyment. If then in 
common with all other creatures those laws exist 
in reference to man, and that he possesses and ex- 
hibits a desire and an adaptation for the enjoy- 
ments of a spiritual existence, will it not follow in 
accordance with the known laws of nature, that 
such an enjoyment and such an existence must 


necessarily be his. That he possesses the desire, 
but few will deny. Let us enquire to what extent 
he possesses the adaptation. 

One of the most remarkable peculiarities which 
seems to distinguish man from all other animals, 
is the belief which he possesses of the future state, 
and in connexion with the belief, a desire to share 
in its enjoyments; this belief and desire he has 
possessed from the remotest ages of antiquity ; he 
evinced the belief by the erection of those gigantic 
temples in which he blindly attempted to worship 
the divinities of the unseen world. The desire 
for the enjoyments of that world was expressed 
by the ceremonies of self-torture which he willing- 
ly adopted to secure their possession. That this 
belief and desire impelled him to action is attested 
by the sculpture of the early Assyrian, as well as 
seen in the hyroglyphic of the ancient Egyptian: 
There is a voice heard proclaiming it through the 
classic fanes of ancient Greece, the echoes of 
which are distinctly heard in the ruined temples 
of the Mexican. Nor is it in a state only of bar- 
baric or partial civilization, that man possessed 
this belief and desire. Hear an evidence as touch- 
ing the question by an accomplished and learned 
heathen. "There is," said Cicero, "I know not how 
in the minds of men a certain presage, as it were 
of a future existence, and this takes the deepest 
root, and is most discoverable in the greatest 
geniuses and the most exalted souls." Numberless 
testimonies of a similar character might be quoted 
from the sages of the ancient schools, attesting that 
this belief and desire shed an influence round his 
cradle, accompanied him through life, nor left him 


as "be entered the grave. And here it may be re- 
marked, as if to coDfirm the belief and encourage 
the desire, the Creator appears occasionally to have 
intimated to man his adaptation to or for a spirit- 
ual existence in the fact of the enlarged capabili- 
ties which his soul experienced in its powers, at 
times when his bodily strength was weakened or 
suffering by the organic disease which ultimately 
caused his death. Thus individuals who died 
from disease of the brain, before death became ra- 
tional, predicting the time of their end and other 
events of a similar character, a knowledge which 
must have been prescient and foreign in its na- 
ture to that possessed by those individuals in the 
ordinary conditions of their being. Nor is this 
only attested by modern writers and physicians, 
Hippocrates in his writings, says : " There is a 
class of diseases in which men discourse with elo- 
quence and wisdom, and predict secret and future 
events, and this they do although they are igno- 
rant as rustics." An Arabian physician of great 
celebrity gives a similar testimony, stating that he 
knew several Epileptics who exhibited a know- 
ledge of things which they had never learned ; 
Nor is it only in a diseased state of the body that 
the soul exhibits the power of acting independently 
of the body's sensations. Marini, the poet, while 
engaged in the study of his celebrated poem, the 
" Adone," being seated near a fire, unconsciously 
burned the flesh from his leg, nor felt the pangs 
until his clothing was nearly in flames ; Viote, 
the celebrated mathematician, has been known to 
pass three days and three nights without food, 
while absorbed in his calculations. Do not these 


facts argue that the soul may exist in a state where 
its powers may he enlarged, if freed from the body. 
They not only intimate the possibility, bat they 
also exhibit the soul's adaptation for such an ex- 
istence, because they exhibit an increase of spiritual 
intelligence and power, in a ratio corresponding to a 
decrease of 'physical power and sensation ; or in other 
words, the less influenced and untrammelled by 
the body, the more active and spiritual the pow- 
ers and operations of the soul, — a fact beautifully 
illustrated in the death scene of the celebrated 
Mozart. With his physical powers prostrated, 
and in a state of mental agony, yet having a con- 
sciousness that he was about to enter on the con- 
fines of an unseen existence, and feeling his inspi- 
rations becoming intensified as he approached its 
realities, grasping the opportunity which he knew 
his exit only could afford, and while glowing in 
his rapt visions of the beautiful, he penned what 
we erringly call his dying thoughts and left be- 
hind him his matchless requiem. 

Nor is it only in the enlargement of its powers, 
when untrammelled by the body, that the human 
soul exhibits an adaptation for a spiritual exist- 
ence. The delight which it er joys in its apprecia- 
tion of the beautiful, is but another phase in 
which the adaptation is seen. Endowed with the 
gift of speecli, man is capable of expressing his 
conceptions not merely of the beautiful which he 
perceives in color, form, or sound, but also his con- 
ceptions of that beautiful which is exclusively 
ideal, and which can be comprehended only by 
spiritual intelligence, — the beautiful as it exists in 
the harmony of the universe, in the proportion of 


its atoms, and in the contrast of its several ar- 
rangements. Enjoying those delights in common 
with the intelligences of the hidden world, is an 
evidence also that he possesses not merely the de- 
Bire, but also an adaptation for a spiritual exist- 
ence, a conclusion which is strengthened by the 
reflection, that all his intellectual enjoyments have 
in their existence a special reference to the.future; 
Hence it must necessarily follow, that possessing 
the desire and exhibiting the adaptation, the con- 
clusion is rational, that in accordance with the 
known laws of nature, that future existence, to- 
gether with its spiritual enjoyments, must neces- 
sarily be his. Yes, his, for his faculties yearn for 
it, his passions live for it, and even his very intel- 
lectual enjoyments on earth are kindred in their 
nature or character to the intellectual enjoyments 
of Heaven. And let the materialist hear it, that 
if for the purpose of denying the conclusion, he 
would disallow the premises, we would still tell 
him that were no other testimony within his 
reach, he might even learn something in favor of 
the doctrine of a future existence in the exclama- 
tion which rushed from the dying lips of a pro- 
fessed infidel, "lam going," said he; where? 
was it into annihilation ? No ! " I am going," 
he said," where?" Was it into eternal silence and 
oblivion ? No. " I am going," said he, "to take 
a leap in the dark." Aye in the dark, what was 
that dark? the dim gloom that enshrouded his fu- 
ture. Yes, when his soul was departing, conscience 
found a tongue, and denied the lie of the skeptic; 
nor is it only when man comes to die, that con- 
science speaks out concerning this future, her faith- 


ful admonitions in connexion with, reason, are ever 
begetting within us that class of strange thoughts 
which are termed the intuitive perceptions of the 
human soul ; perceptions which appear to have their 
existence only in reference to the unseen world, 
occasionally lifting from that world the veil which 
hides it from the vision of the mortal, for 

" As angels in id some brighter dreams 
Call to the soul when man doth sleep, — 
So some strange thoughts transcend our wonted themes, 

And into glory peep." 

Yes, both when we sleep, and when we wake, 
those intuitive perceptions are ever looking for- 
ward to the realities of the future, andwhispering- 
ly telling us, that that future and the present, are 
but parts of a unity with which our existence is 
inseparably connected. And we would tell the 
the Skeptic and the Materialist, less in anger than 
in love, that more forcible than the laws of nature, 
more definite than the confession of an infidel, and 
more distinct than the intuitive perceptions of the 
human soul, that there exists for this future an 
evidence more powerful than the whole of these 
combined ; an evidence that certifies its identity, 
and unfolds its realities, — an evidence of so extra- 
dinary a character, that because suited to all the 
peculiarities of our nature, it appears to be one in 
origin with the human soul itself. Well might 
the poet who had felt the conviction of this evi- 


dence, while standing mid the mounds of an hum- 
ble burial ground, impassionately exclaim : — 

u And you ye graves, upon whose turf I stand, 

Girt with the slumber of the Hamlet's dead; 
Time, with a soft and reconciling hand 

A covering mantel of bright moss hath spread 
O'er every narrow bed ; 

Yet not by time, and not by nature sown 
Was that celestial seed whence round you peace hath 

Christ hath arisen ! ! not one cherished head 
Hath midst those flowery spots been pillowed here , 

Without a hope, howe'er the heart hath bled 
In its vain yearnings o'er the unconscious bier ; 

A hope upspringing clear, from the celestial tidings of 
the morn, 
Which lit the living way to all of woman born," 

Doubter, go read this evidence, the original of 
the document may not be touched, it is dwelling 
in the courts above, and encircled by a radiance 
in the unseen world ; but there is a faithful tran- 
script on earth ; and though men have received 
it in two parts, yet we may not doubt of its in- 
tegrity ; for a proof of its unity is contained in 
the fact that the glory which was dimly shadow- 
ed forth in the promises of the one, has been clear- 
ly and distinctly revealed in the fulfilment of the 
other. Lay fast hold on its teachings ; its pages 
will reveal the secret of your existence ; it not 
only declares the origin of your gifts, but shews 
you also how to appreciate and enjoy them, it can 
harmonize your passions and direct your /acuities 


to their proper orbit. Nor need we doubt of its 
truthfulness, for the morality it inculcates must 
necessarily recommend it to, and gain the high- 
est approval of your conscience. Nor will it do 
violence to your reason when approaching your 
will. Should it awaken your hope, it will enkin- 
dle your love, and bestow on you a foretaste of its 
promised joy. Its faithful perusal will make you 
acquainted with the future and its grand secret, of 
which, when you are once possessed, then, with 
those who already hold its rich treasure, you will 
declare exultingly 

" There is no death, 

What seems so, is transition; 
This life of mortal breath 

Is but the suburbs of the life Elysian, 
Whose portals we call death." 

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